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Title:THE PRINCE (non illustrated)
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Category:Non fiction, Politics, History, Classics

THE PRINCE (non illustrated) by Niccolò Machiavelli, W.K. Marriott

PDF, EPUB, MOBI, TXT, DOC THE PRINCE (non illustrated) The Prince is a political treatise by the Italian diplomat historian and political theorist Niccol Machiavelli From correspondence a version appears to have been distributed in using a Latin title De Principatibus About Principalities However the printed version was not published until five years after Machiavelli s death This was done with the permission of the Medici pope Clement VII but long before then in fact since the first appearance of the Prince in manuscript controversy had swirled about his writings .

Although it was written as if it were a traditional work in the mirrors for princes style it is generally agreed that it was especially innovative This is only partly because it was written in the Vernacular Italian rather than Latin a practice which had become increasingly popular since the publication of Dante s Divine Comedy and other works of Renaissance literature .

The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy especially modern political philosophy in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning how to consider politics and ethics .

Although it is relatively short the treatise is the most remembered of his works and the one most responsible for bringing the word Machiavellian into wide usage as a pejorative term It also helped make Old Nick an English term for the devil and even contributed to the modern negative connotations of the words politics and politician in western countries In terms of subject matter it overlaps with the much longer Discourses on Livy which was written a few years later In its use of near contemporary Italians as examples of people who perpetrated criminal deeds for politics another lesser known work by Machiavelli which The Prince has been compared to is the Life of Castruccio Castracani .

The descriptions within The Prince have the general theme of accepting that the aims of princes such as glory and survival can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends .

He who neglects what is done for what ought to be done sooner effects his ruin than his preservation .

Machiavelli Chapter The Prince retrieved .


About the Author .


Niccol di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian politician diplomat philosopher humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs He was a founder of modern political science and more specifically political ethics He also wrote comedies carnival songs and poetry His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language He was Secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from to when the Medici were out of power He wrote his masterpiece The Prince after the Medici had recovered power and he no longer held a position of responsibility in Florence .

His moral and ethical beliefs led to the creation of the word machiavellianism which has since been used to describe one of the three dark triad personalities in psychology .

Impact .

To quote Robert Bireley .

there were in circulation approximately fifteen editions of the Prince and nineteen of the Discourses and French translations of each before they were placed on the Index of Paul IV in a measure which nearly stopped publication in Catholic areas except in France Three principal writers took the field against Machiavelli between the publication of his works and their condemnation in and again by the Tridentine Index in These were the English cardinal Reginald Pole and the Portuguese bishop Jeronymo Osorio both of whom lived for many years in Italy and the Italian humanist and later bishop Ambrogio Caterino Politi .

Machiavelli s ideas had a profound impact on political leaders throughout the modern west helped by the new technology of the printing press During the first generations after Machiavelli his main influence was in non Republican governments Pole reported that the Prince was spoken of highly by Thomas Cromwell in England and had influenced Henry VIII in his turn towards Protestantism and in his tactics for example during the Pilgrimage of Grace A copy was also possessed by the Catholic king and emperor Charles V In France after an initially mixed reaction Machiavelli came to be associated with Catherine de Medici and the St Bartholomew s Day massacre As Bireley reports in the th century Catholic writers associated Machiavelli with the Protestants whereas Protestant authors saw him as Italian and Catholic In fact he was apparently influencing both Catholic and Protestant kings .

One of the most important early works dedicated to criticism of Machiavelli especially The Prince was that of the Huguenot Innocent Gentillet whose work commonly referred to as Discourse against Machiavelli or Anti Machiavel was published in Geneva in He accused Machiavelli of being an atheist and accused politicians of his time by saying that his works were the Koran of the courtiers that he is of no reputation in the court of France which hath not Machiavel s writings at the fingers ends Another theme of Gentillet was more in the spirit of Machiavelli himself he questioned the effectiveness of immoral strategies just as Machiavelli had himself done despite also explaining how they could sometimes work This became the theme of much future political discourse in Europe during the th century This includes the Catholic Counter Reformation writers summarised by Bireley Giovanni Botero Justus Lipsius Carlo Scribani Adam Contzen Pedro de Ribadeneira and Diego Saavedra Fajardo These authors criticized Machiavelli but also followed him in many ways They accepted the need for a prince to be concerned with reputation and even a need for cunning and deceit but compared to Machiavelli and like later modernist writers they emphasized economic progress much more than the riskier ventures of war These authors tended to cite Tacitus as their source for realist political advice rather than Machiavelli and this pretense came to be known as Tacitism Black tacitism was in support of princely rule but red tacitism arguing the case for republics more in the original spirit of Machiavelli himself became increasingly important .

Modern materialist philosophy developed in the th th and th centuries starting in the generations after Machiavelli This philosophy tended to be republican more in the original spirit of Machiavellian but as with the Catholic authors Machiavelli s realism and encouragement of using innovation to try to control one s own fortune were more accepted than his emphasis upon war and politics Not only was innovative economics and politics a result but also modern science leading some commentators to say that the th century Enlightenment involved a humanitarian moderating of Machiavellianism .

The importance of Machiavelli s influence is notable in many important figures in this endeavor for example Bodin Francis Bacon Algernon Sidney Harrington John Milton Spinoza Rousseau Hume Edward Gibbon and Adam Smith Although he was not always mentioned by name as an inspiration due to his controversy he is also thought to have been an influence for other major philosophers such as Montaigne Descartes Hobbes Locke and Montesquieu .

In the seventeenth century it was in England that Machiavelli s ideas were most substantially developed and adapted and that republicanism came once more to life and out of seventeenth century English republicanism there were to emerge in the next century not only a theme of English political and historical reflection of the writings of the Bolingbroke circle and of Gibbon and of early parliamentary radicals but a stimulus to the Enlightenment in Scotland on the Continent and in America Scholars have argued that Machiavelli was a major indirect and direct influence upon the political thinking of the Founding Fathers of the United States Benjamin Franklin James Madison and Thomas Jefferson followed Machiavelli s republicanism when they opposed what they saw as the emerging aristocracy that they feared Alexander Hamilton was creating with the Federalist Party Hamilton learned from Machiavelli about the importance of foreign policy for domestic policy but may have broken from him regarding how rapacious a republic needed to be in order to survive George Washington was probably less influenced by Machiavelli However the Founding Father who perhaps most studied and valued Machiavelli as a political philosopher was John Adams who profusely commented on the Italian s thought in his work A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America In his Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States John Adams praised Machiavelli with Algernon Sidney and Montesquieu as a philosophic defender of mixed government For Adams Machiavelli restored empirical reason to politics while his analysis of factions was commendable Adams likewise agreed with the Florentine that human nature was immutable and driven by passions He also accepted Machiavelli s belief that all societies were subject to cyclical periods of growth and decay For Adams Machiavelli lacked only a clear understanding of the institutions necessary for good government .

th century .

The th century Italian Communist Antonio Gramsci drew great inspiration from Machiavelli s writings on ethics morals and how they relate to the State and revolution in his writings on Passive Revolution and how a society can be manipulated by controlling popular notions of morality .

Joseph Stalin read The Prince and annotated his own copy .

Revival of interest in the comedies .

In the th century there was also renewed interest in Machiavelli s La Mandragola which received numerous stagings including several in New York at the New York Shakespeare Festival in and the Riverside Shakespeare Company in as a musical comedy by Peer Raben in Munich s antiteater in and at London s National Theatre in

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Machiavelli: Selected Political Writings, The Prince, The Art of War/The Prince, The Portable Machiavelli, The Prince and Other Writings, History of Florence and of the Affairs of Italy, The Discourses, The Art of War, Mandragola, The Prince and The Discourses
Few figures in intellectual history have proved as notorious and ambiguous as Niccolo Machiavelli But while his treatise i The Prince i made his name synonymous with autocratic ruthlessness and cynical manipulation i The Discourses i c shows a radically different outlook on the world of politics br br In this carefully argued commentary on Livy s history of republican Rome Machiavelli proposed a system of government that would uphold civic freedom and security by instilling the virtues of active citizenship and that would also encourage citizens to put the needs of the state above selfish personal interests br br Ambitious in scope but also clear eyed and pragmatic i The Discourses i creates a modern theory of republic politics Leslie J Walker s definitive translation has been revised by Brian Richardson and is accompanied by an introduction by Bernard Crick which illuminates Machiavelli s historical context and his new theories of politics This edition also includes suggestions for further reading and notes, No description available, i The Prince and Other Writings i by b Niccolo Machiavelli b is part of the i Barnes amp Noble Classics i i i series which offers quality editions at affordable prices to the student and the general reader including new scholarship thoughtful design and pages of carefully crafted extras Here are some of the remarkable features of i Barnes amp Noble Classics i br br New introductions commissioned from today s top writers and scholars br Biographies of the authors br Chronologies of contemporary historical biographical and cultural events br Footnotes and endnotes br Selective discussions of imitations parodies poems books plays paintings operas statuary and films inspired by the work br Comments by other famous authors br Study questions to challenge the reader s viewpoints and expectations br Bibliographies for further reading br Indices amp Glossaries when appropriate br All editions are beautifully designed and are printed to superior specifications some include illustrations of historical interest i Barnes amp Noble Classics i pulls together a constellation of influences biographical historical and literary to enrich each reader s understanding of these enduring works br br br One of history s greatest political philosophers b Niccol Machiavelli b is notorious for his treatise i The Prince i which has become a cornerstone of modern political theory Written in and published in after Machivelli s death i The Prince i immediately provoked controversy that has continued unabated to this day br br Defining human nature as inherently selfish Machiavelli proposes that social conflict and violence are natural phenomena that help determine the ablest most versatile form of government Asserting that idealism has no place in the political arena i The Prince i primarily addresses a monarch s difficulties in retaining authority Considered the first expression of political realism it has often been accused of advocating a political philosophy in which the end justifies the means Indeed the emphasis in i The Prince i on practical success at the expense even of traditional moral values earned Machiavelli a reputation for ruthlessness deception and cruelty Many scholars contend however that the author s pragmatic views of ethics and politics reflected the realities of his time as exemplified by the Medici family of Florence br br Debates about Machiavelli s theories are as lively today as they were years ago but no one questions the importance of his fundamental contribution to Western political thought This newly translated edition also includes Machiavelli s i Letter to Francesco Vettori i i The Life of Castruccio Castracani i and excerpts from the i Discourses on Livy i br b Wayne A Rebhorn b Celanese Centennial Professor of English at the University of Texas has authored numerous studies of Renaissance European literature His i Foxes and Lions Machiavelli s Confidence Men i won the Howard R Marraro Prize of the Modern Language Association of America in, This Special Edition of The Art of War amp The Prince by Machiavelli unites both of Machiavelli s renowned volumes on strategy so that the philosophy and mechanisms for obtaining power and managing power may be seen as a single entity Possessed of a great intellect Niccolo Machiavelli was uniquely suited to examine and explain the important details of statecraft Machiavelli like Plato and Pythagoras and Confucius two hundred odd decades before him saw only one method by which a thinking man himself not powerful might do the work of state building and that was by seizing the imagination of a Prince With these writings he has influenced the history of the world Machiavelli has so influenced human civilization that the very term Machiavellian has come to mean that which is characterized by expediency deceit and cunning A prime example is his advice A wise prince when he has the opportunity ought with craft to foster some animosity against himself so that having crushed it his renown may rise higher His advice on this and other suggested intrigues has been heeded by various heads of state for over four hundred years Other Special Editions in this series that deal with the subject of warfare and strategy include br The Art of War By Sun Tzu Special Edition br The Art of War By Mao Tse tung Special Edition br The Art of War By Baron De Jomini Special Edition